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echo -n <string>
Print <string> without newline
hexdump -C <file>
Print hexdump of <file> next to the 'normal' representation


command > <file>
Send standard output to new <file> (<file> can be /dev/null if you don't want to see the output)
command >> <file>
Append standard output to <file>
command > <file> 2>&1
Send erroroutput the same file as standard output
cmd 2>&1 > <file> | cmd2
stderr wordt eerst aan stdout gekoppeld (gaat naar pipe) stdout wordt daarna aan file gekoppeld
echo >&2 “error”
redirection can be anywhere in the command, this sends “error” to stderr.
exec > <file>
redirect output current shell to <file> (eg for logging)
exec 3>&-
Close file-descriptor 3
exec 3>&2; exec 2> <file>; exec 2>&3
Save stderr in file-descriptor 3, connect stderr to <file> and restore original stderr
exec 3< <file>
Open file-descriptor 3 to <file>
read -u 3 LINE
Read a line from file-descriptor 3 and store it in variable LINE
exec < <file> 3<&0
Redirect stdin to file and connect file-descriptor 3 to stdin
command << MARKER
stdin reads until MARKER (EOF is often used as marker)