Linux/Unix:Find and Replace

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cat

head tail

fold

strings

more less

tr

tr "[:upper:]" "[:lower:]"
tr "[abc]" "[xyz]"
Transtlate, make all lowercase
replace all a's with y, all b's with y and all c's with z, works from stdin to stdout. All sort of translations can be done
tr -d <char>
Delete <char> from standard input

grep

sed

s/pattern/newstring/
In each line replace first occurrence of pattern with newstring. /g at the end replaces all occurrences of pattern.
s/pattern/d
Delete each line matching pattern.

awk

read